Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد علی جناح, Audio (help·info) born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai, 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician and statesman, and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam (Urdu: قائد اعظم —"Great Leader") and Baba-i-Qaum (بابائے قوم) ("Father of the Nation"); his birthday is a national holiday there. Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence on 14 August 1947, and as Pakistan's first Governor-General from independence until his death on 11 September 1948.
Born in Karachi and educated as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London, Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress (Congress) in the first two decades of the 20th century, initially advocating Hindu-Muslim unity and helping to shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress. Jinnah also became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League, and proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims should a united British India become independent.