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The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج Pak Fouj (IPA: Pɑkʰ fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); reporting name: PA) is the uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan Army is a volunteer professional fighting force.[2] According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) it has an active force of 620,000 personnel in 2012.[3] The Pakistani constitution contains a provision for conscription, but it has never been imposed.
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Since independence, the Army has been involved in four wars with neighboring India and several border skirmishes with Afghanistan. It maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and aided the Coalition in the first Gulf War. Other major operations undertaken by the Army include Operation Black Thunderstorm and Operation Rah-e-Nijat. Apart from conflicts, the Army has been an active participant in UN missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.
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Mission
Pakistan Army
Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg
Leadership
Chief of Army Staff
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Organisation and Components
Structure of the Pakistan Army
Frontier Corps
Frontier Works Organisation
Special Service Group
Army Cantonment Board
Pakistan Armoured Corps
Installations
General Headquarters
Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
National Defence University
Personnel
Army Ranks of Pakistan
Pakistan Army Generals
Equipment
Modern equipment
History and Traditions
Military history of Pakistan
UN Peacekeeping Missions
Pakistan Army FC
Awards, Decorations and Badges
Awards and Decorations
Nishan-e-Haider

Pakistan Army serves as the land-based branch of the Pakistan Military. Chapter 2 of PART XII of Pakistani Constitution defines the purpose of the Army as:[4]

The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, and, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so.[5]
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Mission
Pakistan Army
Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg
Leadership
Chief of Army Staff
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Organisation and Components
Structure of the Pakistan Army
Frontier Corps
Frontier Works Organisation
Special Service Group
Army Cantonment Board
Pakistan Armoured Corps
Installations
General Headquarters
Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
National Defence University
Personnel
Army Ranks of Pakistan
Pakistan Army Generals
Equipment
Modern equipment
History and Traditions
Military history of Pakistan
UN Peacekeeping Missions
Pakistan Army FC
Awards, Decorations and Badges
Awards and Decorations
Nishan-e-Haider

Pakistan Army serves as the land-based branch of the Pakistan Military. Chapter 2 of PART XII of Pakistani Constitution defines the purpose of the Army as:[4]

The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, and, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so.[5]
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Mission
Pakistan Army
Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg
Leadership
Chief of Army Staff
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Organisation and Components
Structure of the Pakistan Army
Frontier Corps
Frontier Works Organisation
Special Service Group
Army Cantonment Board
Pakistan Armoured Corps
Installations
General Headquarters
Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
National Defence University
Personnel
Army Ranks of Pakistan
Pakistan Army Generals
Equipment
Modern equipment
History and Traditions
Military history of Pakistan
UN Peacekeeping Missions
Pakistan Army FC
Awards, Decorations and Badges
Awards and Decorations
Nishan-e-Haider

Pakistan Army serves as the land-based branch of the Pakistan Military. Chapter 2 of PART XII of Pakistani Constitution defines the purpose of the Army as:[4]

The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, and, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so.[5]
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received large amounts of economic and military aid from the United States and Great Britain after signing two mutual defence treaties, the Baghdad Pact, which led to the formation of the Central Treaty Organization, and the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954. This aid greatly expanded the Army from its modest beginnings.

The sole division headquarters that went to Pakistan was the 7th. 8th and 9th Divisions were raised in 1947; 10, 12th and 14 Divisions were raised in 1948. 15 Div was raised in 1950. At some point before 1954, 6 Division was raised and 9 Division disbanded. 6 Division was disbanded at some point after 1954 as US assistance was available only for one armoured and six infantry divisions.
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Pakistan Army took over from poiliticians for the first time when General Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. He formed Convention Muslim League which includes Pakistan's first elected Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto. Tensions with India continued in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was fought near the Rann of Kutch area during April 1965. The Pakistan Army initiated Operation Gibraltar, an attempt to remove Indian forces from the disputed territo
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attacked by trying to invade undisputed Pakistani territory and the PA's goals changed from gaining control of Indian-administered Kashmir to defending Pakistani territory from invading Indian forces. Eventually a ceasefire agreement was reached. The war ended in the Tashkent Declaration and is widely regarded by neutral sources to have been a stalemate. According to the Library of Congress Country Studies conducted by the Federal Research Division of the United States[6] The war was militarily inconclusive; each side held prisoners and some territory belonging to the other. Losses were relatively heavy—on the Indian side with 83 aircraft, 547 tanks, and 15000 troops while the Pakistani side sustained, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops.
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The Pakistan Army considers itself to have achieved a victory because it managed to force a stalemate against a significantly larger force attacking sovereign Pakistani territory at different points, which the PA did not expect and was not prepared or equipped for. Indian sources disagree and call the end result an Indian victory. Highly effective support from the Pakistan Air Force, which was unexpected, is often considered to have neutralised India's advantage in quantity of forces. The accurate artillery fire provided by the PA artillery units is also stated to have played a significant role.
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An uprising against General Ayub Khan during 1968 and 1969 resulted in Ayub Khan relinquishing his office as President and Chief of Army Staff in favour of General Yahya Khan, who assumed power in 1969. 16 Division, 18 Division and 23 Division were raised at some point between 1966 and 1969 and 9 Division was re-raised during this period.
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During the rule of General Yahya Khan, the people of East Pakistan protested against various political and economic disparities that had been imposed on them by West Pakistan and massive civil unrest broke out in East Pakistan. During operations against these rebels, called Operation Searchlight, a faction of the Pakistan Army under General Yahya Khan was responsible for the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities.[7] Beginning with the start of Operation Searchlight on 25 March 1971 and due to the Bangladesh Liberation War, there were numerous human rights abuses in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) perpetrated by the Pakistan Army, with support from local political and religious militias, especially against Hindus.[8][9] Time reported a high ranking U.S. official as saying "It is the most incredible, calculated thing since the days of the Nazis in Poland."[10]
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The original plan envisioned taking control of the major cities on 26 March 1971, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military,[11] within one month. The prolonged Bengali resistance was not anticipated by Pakistani planners.[12] The main phase of Operation Searchlight ended with the fall of the last major town in Bengali hands in mid May.
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In 1997 R. J. Rummel published a book, available on the web, called "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900", In Chapter 8 called "Statistics Of Pakistan's Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources" he looks at the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. Rummel wrote:
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In East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) [the President of Pakistan, General Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan, and his top generals] also planned to murder its Bengali intellectual, cultural, and political elite. They also planned to indiscriminately murder hundreds of thousands of its Hindus and drive the rest into India. And they planned to destroy its economic base to insure that it would be subordinate to West Pakistan for at least a generation to come. This plan may be perceived as genocide.[13]
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According to Maj. (Retd.) Agha Humayun Amin, Pakistan Army high command commanders had not seriously considered an Indian invasion of East Pakistan until December 1971 because it was presumed that the Indian military would not risk Chinese or U.S. intervention. Maj Mazhar states that the PA's senior command failed to realise that the Chinese would be unable to intervene during the winter months of November to December 1971 period due to snowbound Himalayan passes and the U.S. had not made any real effort to persuade India against attacking East Pakistan.[14]
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A Pakistan International Airlines flight was sent to fetch Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan's case before the United Nations Security Council on the East Pakistan Crises. Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971. On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as President and the other as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Thus he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of the Pakistan.
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In 1977 a coup was staged by General Zia ul-Haq and the government was overthrown. This led to the hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto after he was tried and proclaimed guilty of conspiracy of murdering a politician named Kasuri by Zia's handpicked judges. Zia ul-Haq reneged on his promise of holding elections within 90 days and ruled as a military dictator until his death in an air crash in 1988. General Mohammad Iqbal Khan served as a jo
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In the mid-1970s the Pakistan Army was involved in fighting an uprising in Balochistan. Various Balochi factions, some with the oblique support of the USSR, wanted independence or at least greater provincial rights. The rebellion was put down on the behest of the Bhutto government but the Army suffered heavy casualties. After Bhutto was deposed, the province returned to normalcy under General Rahimuddin.
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In the 1980s, Pakistani armed forces co-operated with the United States to provide arms, ammunition and intelligence assistance to Afghan mujahideen who were fighting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The U.S. supplied modern military equipment to Pakistan.
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During the 1st Gulf War Pakistan Army contributed troops for the defence of Saudi Arabia against possible Iraqi retaliation. Although Pakistan Army saw few actions their still it's performance was remarkable. The 153 Lt AirDefence (GM/SP) Regiment deployed in Tabuk scored multiple hits on number of Iraqi Scuds and provided round the clock Air Defence protection to Saudi Troops in the Area.
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In October 1999, after the Kargil War ended with the unconditional withdrawal of the Pakistani forces from the Indian controlled peaks, the Pakistan Army overthrew a democratically elected government for the fourth time, resulting in additional sanctions being applied against Pakistan, leading to General Pervez Musharraf coming to power in a bloodless coup. However, this time Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif sacked Musharraf when he was on his way to Pakistan from Colombo. He dismissed the Army Chief and appointed General Ziauddin Butt as Army Chief when Musarraf's plane was in the air. That was not enough, the plane was not allowed to land at the Karachi Airport and barricaeds were erected on the runway. The corps commanders acted swiftly across Pakistan, particularly in Karachi and Islamabad. Brigadiar Muzaffar Usmani took control of Karachi Airport and arrested the Inspector General of Sind Police, Rana Maqbool Ahmed. Musharraf stepped down as President in August 2008. On 30 July 2009, the Pakistan Supreme Court ruled that Musharraf's imposition of Emergency Rule in 2007 was unconstitutional.[15]
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After the September 11 attacks in the United States, Pakistan joined the US-led War on Terror and helped the United States armed forces by severing ties with the Taliban and immediately deploying 72,000 troops along Pakistan's western border to capture or kill Taliban and al-Qaida militants fleeing from Afghanistan. On the north western front, Pakistan initially garrisoned its troops in military bases and forts in the tribal areas. In May 2004 clashes erupted between the Pakistani troops and al-Qaeda's and other militants joined by local rebels and pro-Taliban forces. However, the offensive was poorly coordinated and the Pakistan Army suffered heavy casualties, while public support for the attack quickly evaporated. After a two year conflict from 2004 until 2006, the Pakistani military negotiated a ceasefire with the tribesmen from the region in which they pledged to hunt down al-Qaeda members, stop the Talibanization of the region and stop attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan. However, the militants did not hold up their end of the bargain and began to regroup and rebuild their strength from the previous two years of conflict.
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The militants took over the Lal Masjid in Islamabad. After a six month standoff fighting erupted again in July 2007 when the Pakistani military decided to use force to end the Lal Masjid threat. Once the operation ended, the newly formed Pakistani Taliban, an umbrella group of all militants based in FATA, vowed revenge and launched a wave of attacks and suicide bombings which erupted all over North-West Pakistan and major Pakistani cities, including Karachi, throughout 2007.
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The militants then expanded their base of operations and moved into the neighbouring Swat Valley, where they imposed Sharia law. The Pakistan Army launched an offensive to re-take the Swat Valley in 2007, but was unable to clear it of the militants who had fled into the mountains and waited for them to leave before taking over the valley again. The militants then launched another wave of terrorist attacks inside Pakistan. The Pakistani government and military tried another peace deal with the militants in Swat Valley in 2008. This was roundly criticised in the West as abdicating to the militants. After initially pledging to lay down their arms if Sharia Law was implemented, the Pakistani Taliban subsequently used the Swat Valley as a springboard to launch further attacks into neighbouring regions, reaching to within 60 kilometres (37 mi) of Islamabad.
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Public opinion then turned decisively against the Pakistani Taliban. This opinion was highlighted following the release of a video showing the flogging of a girl by the Pakistani Taliban in Swat Valley. Similar events and terrorist attacks finally forced the Pakistan Army to launch a decisive attack against the Taliban occupying Swat Valley in April 2009, after having received orders from the political leadership.[16] After heavy fighting the Swat Valley was largely pacified by July 2009, although isolated pockets of Taliban remained in the area.
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The next phase of Pakistan Army's offensive was the formidable Waziristan region. A US drone attack killed the leader of the Pakistani Taliban, Baitullah Mehsud, in August. A power struggle engulfed the Pakistani Taliban during September, but by October a new leader had emerged, Hakimullah Mehsud. Under his leadership, the Pakistani Taliban launched another wave of terrorist attacks throughout Pakistan, killing hundreds of people. After a few weeks of air strikes, artillery and mortar attacks, 30,000 troops moved on South Waziristan, in a three pronged attack. The Pakistan Army re-took South Waziristan and is currently thinking of expanding the campaign to North Waziristan.
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On April 2012 an avalanche struck the 6th Northern Light Infantry Battalion headquarters in Ghyari sector of Siachen, entrapping 135 soldiers.[17]
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In the wake of the new world power equilibrium a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterised by growing national power politics and state implosions which have necessitated involvement of the United Nations peace keeping forces for conflict resolution.
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The United Nations has been undertaking peace keeping operations since its inception, but the need for employment of peace keeping forces has increased significantly since the Gulf War. In 1992 there were 11,000 Blue Berets deployed around the world, by the end of the year the figure rose to 52,000. Presently it exceeds 80,000 troops.

UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) 1960–1964
UN Security Force in New Guinea, West Irian (UNSF) 1962–1963
UN Yemen Observer Mission Yemen (UNYOM) 1963–1964
UN Transition Assistance Group in Namibia (UNTAG) 1989–1990
UN Iraq–Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM) 1991–2003
UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 1993–1996
UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1992–1993
UN Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) 1992–1995



UN Protection Forces in Bosnia (UNPROFOR) 1992–1995
UN Observer Mission for Rawanda (UNAMIR) 1993–1996
UN Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM III) 1995–1997
UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia (UNTAES) 1996–1997
UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 1996–2002
UN Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 2001–2005
UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 1999-to-date

The table below shows the current deployment of Pakistani Forces in UN Peacekeeping missions.
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The President of Pakistan is the civilian supreme commander of the Pakistan Armed Forces by statute, while the Prime Minister of Pakistan served as the Chief Executive of Pakistan Armed Forces, both people-elected civilians, Prime Minister and President, maintains the civilian control of the military. The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), a four-star general, is the highest general officer (unless the four-star general is Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee), a field and operational commander as well as a highest army four-star general officer, directs the non-combat and combatant operations from army combatant headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO) assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant-General level include a Chief of General Staff (CGS), under whom the Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function; the Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS); the Adjutant General (AG); the Quarter-Master General (QMG); the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation (IGT and E); the Military Secretary (MS); and the Engineer-in-Chief, a top army topographer. A major reorganisation in GHQ was done in September 2008 under General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus raising the number of PSO's to eight.[19]
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The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Engineer-in-Chief of the Corps of Engineers who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff. Although most of the officer corps were generally Muslim by the 1970s, there were still serving Christian officers the highest rank being attained by Major General Julian Peter who served as the General Officer Commanding of a Division and as general staff officer at Army Headquarters up-till 2006.
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Commissioned officers rank
Main article: Army ranks of Pakistan

The rank structure is patterned on the British Army model. It consists of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and the junior commissioned officers.
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Structure of Army units

The Pakistan Army is divided into two main branches, which are Arms and Services.

Arms
Armoured Corps
Infantry
Artillery
Air Defence
Engineers
Signals
Aviation
Airborne
Chemical corps[citation needed]



Services
Army Services Corps(ASC)
Corps of Military Police
Military Intelligence Corps
Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (EME)
Army Ordnance Corps
Medical Science Corps
Army Dental Corps
Remount Veterinary and Farms Corps
Army Education Corps
Army Clerical Corps
JAG Branch

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The army operates three commands during peace time. Each command is headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Lieutenant General. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in Rawalpindi.

According to Globalsecurity.org, drawing on Pakistani media sources, three commands, supervising a number of corps each, have been formed: Northern Command, Central Command, and Southern Command.[20][21]
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A corps is an army field formation responsible for a zone within a command theatre. There are three types of corps in the Pakistani Army: Strike, Holding and Mixed. A command generally consists of two or more corps. A corps has Army divisions under its command. The Corps HQ is the highest field formation in the army.
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There are 13 Corps in Pakistan Army. 9 of these Corps are composed of Infantry, Mechanised, Armoured, Artillery and Anti-Tank divisions and brigades. Army Air Defence Command is another Corps of Pakistan Army which plays the role of Anti-Aircraft Artillery whereas Army Aviation Corps provides air support to Pakistan Army. Army Strategic Forces Command is responsible for training, deployment and activation of Pakistan's nuclear missiles. The last Corps is called the Northern Area Command which is Headquartered at Gilgit and is reported to have 5 Infantry Brigades.
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Forces in action or poised for action include XI Corps, which has been heavily engaged in fighting the Taliban and other extremists along Pakistan's north-western border, and 323rd Infantry Brigade, part of Forces Command Northern Areas, on the Siachen Glacier.

The peace time commands are given below in their correct order of raising, and location (city).
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Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg Headquarters, Pakistani Army, Rawalpindi, Punjab

I Corps – headquartered at Mangla Cantonment
6th Armoured Division headquartered at Gujranwala
17th Infantry Division headquartered at Kharian
37th Infantry Division headquartered at Kharian
11th Independent Armoured Brigade
Independent Air Defense Brigade
Independent Artillery Brigade
Independent Infantry Brigade
II Corps – headquartered at Multan
1st Armoured Division headquartered at Multan
14th Infantry Division headquartered at Okara
40th Infantry Division headquartered at Okara
Independent Armoured Brigade
Independent Air Defense Brigade
Independent Artillery Brigade
Independent Infantry Brigade
IV Corps – headquartered at Lahore
2nd Artillery Division headquartered at Gujranwala
10th Infantry Division headquartered at Lahore
11th Infantry Division headquartered at Lahore
3rd Independent Armoured Brigade
212th Infantry Brigade
Independent Artillery Brigade
XXX Corps – headquartered at Gujranwala
8th Infantry Division headquartered at Sialkot
15th Infantry Division headquartered at Sialkot
2nd Independent Armoured Brigade
Independent Anti-Tank Brigade
Independent Artillery Brigade
XXXI Corps – headquartered at Bahawalpur
26th Mechanised Division headquartered at Bahawalpur[28]
35th Infantry Division headquartered at Bahawalpur
13th Independent Armoured Brigade
101st Independent Infantry Brigade



V Corps – headquartered at Karachi
16th Infantry Division headquartered at Pano Aqil
18th Infantry Division headquartered at Hyderabad
25th Mechanised Division headquartered at Malir[28]
31st Mechanised Brigade headquartered at Malir
2nd Armoured Brigade headquartered at Malir
Independent Armoured Brigade
Independent Artillery Brigade
X Corps – headquartered at Rawalpindi
12th Infantry Division headquartered at Murree
19th Infantry Division headquartered at Mangla
23rd Infantry Division headquartered at Jhelum
Force Command Northern Areas – headquartered at Gilgit
111th Infantry Brigade headquartered at Rawalpindi
8th Armoured Brigade headquartered at Kharian
Independent Artillery Brigade
XI Corps – headquartered at Peshawar
7th Infantry Division headquartered at Peshawar
9th Infantry Division headquartered at Kohat
Independent Armoured Brigade headquartered at Nowshera
XII Corps – headquartered at Quetta
33rd Infantry Division headquartered at Quetta
41st Infantry Division headquartered at Quetta
Independent Infantry Brigade headquartered at Turbat
Independent Armoured Brigade headquartered at Khuzdar
Artillery Division headquarters at Pano Aqil
Army Air Defence Command – headquartered at Rawalpindi, Punjab
3rd Air Defence Division headquartered at Sargodha
4th Air Defence Division headquartered at Malir
Army Strategic Forces Command – headquartered at Rawalpindi, Punjab
21st Division headquartered at Pano Aqil
22nd Division headquartered at Sargodha

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Other Field Formations

Division: An Army Division is an intermediate between a Corps and a Brigade. It is the largest striking force in the army. Each Division is headed by [General Officer Commanding] (GOC) in the rank of Major General. It usually consists of 15,000 combat troops and 8,000 support elements. Currently, the Pakistani Army has 29 Divisions including 20 Infantry Divisions, 2 Armoured Divisions, 2 Mechanized Divisions, 2 Air Defence Divisions, 2 Strategic Divisions and 1 Artillery Division. Each Division composes of several Brigades.
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Brigades.
Brigade: A Brigade generally consists of around 3,000 combat troops with supporting elements. An Infantry Brigade usually has 3 Infantry Battalions along with various Support Arms & Services. It is headed by a Brigadier, equivalent to a Brigadier General in some armies. In addition to the Brigades in various Army Divisions, the Pakistani Army also has 7 Independent Armoured Brigades, 5 Independent Artillery Brigades, 3 Independent Infantry Brigades, 3 Anti-Tank Brigades. These Independent Brigades operate directly under the Corps Commander (GOC Corps).
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